Respiratory diseases affect several hundred million people worldwide and are second in terms of mortality, prevalence and socioeconomic burden. In an aging population, multiple chronic lung diseases may occur at the same time, and patients with these diseases also have a higher risk of heart disease. Current treatment strategies help to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life but cannot cure the underlying disease. At the Otto Loewi Research Center, we investigate different chronic respiratory and pulmonary diseases with a focus on the different functional compartments such as airways (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), interstitium (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, fibrosis and cancer) and vascular bed (pulmonary hypertension). By identifying parallels and differences between various chronic pulmonary diseases and decoding the interaction between certain structural and immune cells, we aim to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic concepts.